GLUTAMINE: controversial but effective
Glutamine use in order to support the effectiveness of weight training is recently being questioned. Its well-established position has been undermined by the results of one study. These findings that "have gone out into the world" have been picked up by many malcontents and hailed as a huge issue, unjustly depreciating this valuable sports supplement. Glutamine opponents often incorrectly or unfairly interpret the findings of the studies which came out very well and clearly prove the use of glutamine as a supplement supporting muscle mass development. Therefore, today I will try to reveal the truth about glutamine.
Glutamine career ...
Modern forms of creatine
It seems to leave no doubt that creatine is the best known, widely used and thoroughly tested supplement, used by most of the athletes, both professionals and amateurs.
Creatine, or 2-(Methylguanidino) ethanoic acid, is an amino acid which, after phosphorylation in the presence of creatine kinase, is converted into creatine phosphate – the basic energy-storing compound in the body, playing a key role in the regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) present in muscle cells, which is the main energy carrier in cell and tissue structures (Feldman EB. 1999).
Many review papers (including R. Balsom et al. 1994, Greenhaff R. 1995) have demonstrated ...
Modern 'bulks' – a breakthrough in building muscle mass
Carbohydrate-protein (CP) supplements, still remain the most popular products serving as aid in a rapid increase of body weight for those working out at the gym. The first one of this type of supplements in Poland was Olimp Gainer® (1), and from this brand name supplements of similar composition modelled on this product started to be popularly called “gainers”. Previously, weight gain was not necessarily synonymous with an increase in muscle mass – more often than not supplementation had led to enlargement of “pot belly” circumference and generalised body fatness. This unfavourable state of affairs stemmed directly from the fact ...
EPIGALLOCATECHINS – panacea for everything?
EGCG NUMBER 1
If a research centre troubled itself with creating a ranking of most valuable micronutrients, epicatechin EGCG would without doubt rank first.
VITAMINS, MINERALS, QUASI-VITAMINS
Several thousand publications have been devoted to this extraordinary nutrient over the past decade. Their review indicates that if, for example, vitamins and minerals are absolutely necessary for us to survive, epicatechins are essential to preserve health, improve stamina and live until cheerful old age. Therefore, epicatechins are classified as quasi vitamins: micronutrients not needed for survival as such, but for high existential comfort.
Someone might say: if so, then all the vitamins and minerals are more ...
Muscles without steroids
The so-called muscle mass means in fact mainly the size of contractile protein fibres – contractile, i.e. those that set our body in motion, contracting and relaxing.
Because their size is of great importance for the results in many sports, training focused on the development of muscle mass is an important element in the preparations for competitions. Also, given the strategic importance of the protein mass, anabolic hormones have always dominated in illegal sports doping, since anabolism is the process of building proteins in the body. However, anabolic hormones are detrimental to health, and thus regulations prohibit their use in sport. ...
The slimming effects of orange peel
Women are famous for their lamenting over the shortcomings of their bodies. One of them – voiced “loud and clear” is the orange peel syndrome, commonly known as cellulite. In this syndrome, the protein fibres forming the “scaffolding” of the skin are very loosely woven, while the fat cells attached to them accumulate excess blubber, so that ultimately there appear on the skin hollows and the skin texture takes on the appearance of orange peel.
In such a case, it seems logical that, in order to address the whole problem, it should be sought on the one hand to intensify ...
The slimming effects of tea
TEA HUNGARIAN STYLE
The foodstuff most written about recently is without doubt tea. It is mentioned in articles either on health or on weight loss, since scientists have evidenced its pro-health and slimming effects. Also athletes are extremely interested in it – in bodybuilding sports, where the participant’s category depends on the ratio between muscle and adipose tissue, tea ranks third among the preferred food products, after rice and chicken breast meat. This is not surprising, since research has shown that tea facilitates both the reduction of subcutaneous fat and development of muscle mass.
Thus, understandably, there are developed capsule supplements based ...
Taurine – bulls-eye therapy
The compound was discovered by Tiedemann and Gmelin in 1827, in the bile of cattle, and was called taurine, from the Latin “taurus” – bull.
It is a non-proteinogenic amino acid: it does not form proteins, but simple peptides at the most. However, non-proteinogenic amino acids are no less important than those building proteins (proteinogenic), as exemplified by creatine and carnitine.
Modern medicine uses, and with great success, taurine in cardiology, oncology, hepatology, ophthalmology and neurology. But let us here not discuss the health issues and focus on aid in exercise capacity.
Catabolism (protein breakdown) occurs most intensively during work (exercise) and sleep ...
TESTOSTERONE – production and conversions
WINDING UP TESTOSTERONE
Testosterone is an anabolic hormone, the most important one for exercise adaptation. It is mainly thanks to it that athletes can develop their exercise capacity – shape their motor and morphological characteristics: strength, speed, endurance and muscle mass.
For this reason, this hormone keeps most of the athletes, especially bodybuilders, awake at night, and if there appears any new formulation influencing its activity, they immediately ask for it...
The level and activity of testosterone are individual characteristics. Although they may increase, as a result of body’s adaptation to an increased strain, this mechanism is limited by the unique overall ...
Multifunctionality of creatine esters and protection of the ester groups
Esters are compounds resulting from a joining of acid and alcohol, i.e. from the linking of a carboxyl (acid) group of one of them, with the hydroxyl (alcohol) group of the second one, which is called an ester bond. The ester bond protects the carboxyl group of creatine against the reaction with its own amino group, i.e. against the conversion into creatinine.
Esterification of active substances is an old trick, well known in pharmacology. For decades, esterification was applied to substances that are rapidly metabolised or poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Generally, esters are very resistant to digestion, with the exception ...
Articular cartilage – structure, biomechanics and damage aetiology
1) Articular cartilage – basic information
a. Morphology of articular cartilage
Figure 1. Schematic structure of the joint and cross-sectional layers of articular cartilage
The most important characteristic of articular cartilage, determining its primary function, is its high resistance to abrasion. Therefore, it is located around the articular ends of bones, preventing them from wearing off as a result of the locomotor system’s work. High elasticity of the tissue allows it to change shape under the influence of forces transmitted during the body movement, bearing to a large extent the load acting on the joint. Articular surfaces of the human body are composed ...
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What does ...