Principles of building strength
Increase in muscle strength contributes to the overall results improvement in most sports disciplines and competitions, and is of great importance in preparing the locomotor system for specialist exercise and in preventing injuries. The force generated by muscles may be either static – associated with increased muscle tension (e.g. in arm wrestling), or dynamic – when changes in muscle length occur (chin-ups or bodybuilding exercises). There is also the notion of explosive power, which means the ability to use dynamic force within a very short time, for example: run starts, driving blows in combat sports, etc.
The strength-building workouts are characterised ...
Principles of building muscle mass
Increase in muscle mass participation in the overall structure of the body can be of advantage in many sports competitions. Among other things, muscle mass contributes to the enhancement of power in athletes practicing strength sports (weightlifting) and to achieving greater stability and resisting the opponent’s force in sports such as hockey, rugby or certain combat sports. In bodybuilding and fitness, on the other hand, proper musculature is one of the main elements of the competition.
Hypertrophy of muscle fibres is induced by targeted workout and proper diet.
The principal nutritional strategy should focus on:
increasing the consumption of ...
Principles of building endurance
The ability to prolong the duration of exercise is associated with the concept of endurance. The potential for maintaining high muscular strength over 1-2 min (e.g. in 400 m or 800 m run) should be perceived in the context of anaerobic endurance, while exertion lasting longer than 2 3 min, with its intensity enabling continuous muscle work over a period from several dozen minutes to several hours, demonstrated well-developed aerobic endurance (marathon, cross country skiing, road cycling).
Proper nutritional programme in endurance sports should focus on:
increasing the share of carbohydrates in the diet
Principles of building body shape
Reduction of fat is of significant importance in sports where it is desirable to maximise the efficiency and speed in moving the body (running, gymnastics, cycling, etc.). Low body fat content enables the achievement of biomechanical advantage over the opponent and improvement of exercise capacity, as well as contributes to a more aesthetic appearance in such disciplines as bodybuilding and fitness, where the amount of body fat is one of the main criteria for evaluating the competitor.
Reduction in the adipose tissue content should be gradual, with properly designed exercise as well as nutrition and supplementation programmes. Incorrect methods of reducing ...
Principles of building speed
This is a feature of sports performance characterised by the ability to rapidly mount up muscular strength in a short time (5-30 s). Building speed (maximum power) is particularly important in short races, football, tennis and wrestling.
The primary source of energy used to generate speed is phosphocreatine stored in muscles, and thus the fundamental elements of proper nutritional strategy should be focused on:
maintaining high phosphocreatine levels in the muscles
delivery of adequate quantities of dietary protein for muscle fibre regeneration
prevention of muscle catabolism processes
increasing the ...
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